require the use of biomarkers for diagnostic screening. This includes neoantigen expression, gene signatures and expression profiles, chemokine ratios, cell counts, and immune scores. There are several immune-related biomarkers which can be used to predict clinical outcomes and include the mutational load for CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockage therapy, CD3 T-cell counts, CD8/FOXP3 ratio for tumor necrosis, CD4+ICOS+ T cells, and broad antibody signature in protein microarray-based seromics.1,2
1. S. Gnjatic et al, "Identifying Baseline Immune-Related Biomarkers to Predict Clinical Outcome of Immunotherapy," J Immunother Cancer
, 5 (44): 1-18, 2017.
2. K. W. Mouw et al, "DNA Damage and Repair Biomarkers of Immunotherapy Response," Canc Disc
7(7): 675-693, 2017.